Determination of chemical molecular structure, the chirality and the electronegativity of atom

doc. Ing. Pavel Jelínek, Ph.D.

Doc. Ing. Pavel Jelínek, Ph.D. from the Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences together with his team was able to differentiate chemical structure of molecules on the surface of solid substance. The scientist developed comprehensive physical mechanism theory of this scanning. The key for obtaining this sub-molecular contrast is the placement of one molecule (e.g. carbon monoxide) or atom at the end of the metallic probe. The presence of the flexible particle at the end of the probe causes the strengthening of the signal which then enables to achieve unprecedented resolution of the molecules. This new method also proved the validity of the equation of the Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling for the covalent bond from the 1930s.

Parrots and corvids are clever due to the extreme high number of neurons in their cerebrum

Mgr. Pavel Němec, Ph.D.

Project of Mgr. Pavel Něměc, Ph.D. from the Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague revealed the anatomical nature of bird intelligence and therefore solved the mystery why some birds are extremely intelligent although their brains are small. The research of Mgr. Pavel Němec, Ph.D. proved that small brains of birds contain substantial number of neurons. Despite the fact that the largest brains of Passeriformes weigh around 16 grams and the largest brains of parrots weigh about 25 grams, the brains contain equal number of neurones as primate brains which are significantly larger. This research proved that neither absolute nor relative size of the brain is a proper measure of cognitive abilities. It is rather dependent on the cellular composition and neural density. The results of the research were reported by the media worldwide.

Mathematical methods used to fix blurred photographs

doc. Ing. Filip Šroubek, Ph.D., DSc

Project of doc. Ing. Filip Šroubek, Ph.D., DSc. from the Institute of Information Theory and Automation of the Czech Academy of Sciences was aimed at the blurred photographs. Doc. Ing. Filip Šroubek, Ph.D., DSc. and his team developed mathematical models which enable to refocus blurred digital photographs. The main step of this project was to precisely mathematically model the process of image scanning. It is possible to use this method in photography and other fields such as astronomy, ophthalmology or nuclear medicine. The results were published in 15 scientific journals and were presented at many prestigious foreign conferences.


Hopeful results in the field of tumour cells and cytostatic agents brought project of Professor Blanka Říhová

Prof. RNDr. Blanka Říhová, DrSc.

Project of Prof. RNDr. Blanka Říhová, DrSc. from the Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences brought hopeful results in the field of tumour cells and cytostatic agents. The current advancement in chemotherapy is mainly aimed at the development of new types of cytostatic agents with lower toxicity which inhibit the creation of resistance. The resistance to particular cytostatic agent and multidrug resistance (MDR) is a frequent reason for the failure of chemotherapy. The project team brought new findings proving that the systems for medicaments transfer based on HPMA copolymer conjugates carrying cytostatic agents and P-gp inhibitors are capable to effectively overcome gained and natural multidrug resistance. The results were published in series of scientific journals in the Czech Republic and abroad.


How to fight against prejudice? An example of relationship between participants of five nationalities in Central Europe

Mgr. Sylvie Graf, Ph.D. and doc. PhDr. Martina Hřebíčková, Dr., DSc.

Project which was carried out by Mgr. Sylvie Graf, Ph.D. and doc. PhDr. Martina Hřebíčková, Dr., DSc. from the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences focused on the possible approaches to prejudice reduction. The scientists concentrated on relationships between participants from neighbouring nations in Central Europe. Based on the unique data from Central Europe, the two scientists have proven that negative experience has a relatively higher impact on increasing prejudice than positive experience on decreasing it. However, the positive experience occurs more frequently which then ultimately balances and reduces the higher impact of negativity on the prejudice. Outcomes of this project are presented in the monography “Czechs and their neighbours. Intergroup attitudes and contact in Central Europe.” and article in “European Journal of Social Psychology”.